Sub-Section Category: All

12.1 Transportation of a Casualty

Before transporting a casualty the correct lifting techniques and methods of casualty transport need to be considered. These are influenced by type of injury the casualty sustained and if you suspect the casualty has any head, neck or spinal injuries. Correct lifting technique One out of every three people suffers from a back injury resulting …

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11.1 Poisoning

If a person suddenly becomes ill (or vomits) for no apparent reason consider whether they might have ingested or inhaled poison. Household products, plant matter, decaying food, pesticides, chemicals and narcotics can all result in poisoning. In addition, many medicines designed to be beneficial in small quantities can be very dangerous when taken in excess. …

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10.7 Burns

A burn is an injury caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation or friction. Burns can vary greatly in amount of skin tissue, muscle, bone and blood vessels that are damaged. Pain results from nerve tissue damage. Depending on the area and severity of the burn the casualty may experience a wide range of …

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10.6 Electric Shock

An electric shock can occur upon contact with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient electric current flow through the muscles or hair. The current may cause tissue damage or cardiac fibrillation. Death caused by an electric shock is referred to as electrocution. First aid treatment for electric shock: HHHHCPR Switch off the …

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10.5 Joint & Bone Injuries

Sprains & strains A sprain occurs when the supporting tissues (ligaments or muscles) around a joint are over stretched causing a partial or complete tear resulting in bruising. A strain occurs when the long muscles in the body for example the back, groin as well as the Achilles tendon are abnormally stretched beyond their normal …

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10.4 Internal Bleeding

Internal bleeding occurs when damage to an artery or vein allows blood to escape the circulatory system and collect inside the body. The internal bleeding may occur within tissues, organs or in cavities of the body including the head, chest and abdomen. Internal bleeding may not be evident for many hours after it begins. Symptoms …

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10.3 Bandaging and Splinting

Bandages come in all shapes and sizes. Use what you have available to either stop bleeding, immobilise a limb or sling a lower arm to provide comfort for the casualty. Important: if the casualty’s wound is bleeding you need to protect yourself with surgical gloves. It’s important to always have at least two pairs of …

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10.2 External Bleeding

Types of wounds Abrasion Superficial graze with embedded dirt Incision Clean cut from a sharp object such as a knife Laceration Skin torn open by a rough, sharp object such as barbed wire, metal Avulsion A partial or complete tearing away of skin and the tissue beneath Amputation Body part is cut off such as …

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10.1 Bleeding

Blood contains all fluids necessary for life and is made up of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets and plasma. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to every part of the body and removes toxins/ waste products from the body. RBC: Carry oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide (CO2) away from the …

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9.4 Medical Shock

Shock is a serious and life-threatening medical condition when insufficient blood flow reaches the body tissues which affects their proper functioning. The average adult has about 5 litres of blood in their body (calculated as 7% of body weight). The volume, quality and pressure at which the blood is circulated around the body is precisely …

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