Sub-Section Category: Level 2 &3

13.4 Snake Bites

There are about 175 species of snakes in Southern Africa, of which only 15 are considered dangerously venomous. Remember that most snakes are not aggressive but will bite if threatened or man-handled. Some snakes are poly-venomous (i.e. carry more than one type of venom). Neurotoxic: affecting the nervous system. Examples: Berg Adder, Cape Cobra, Snouted …

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13.3 Insect Bites and Stings

Wasps and bees A sting from a flying insect usually causes a painful sensation as well as redness and swelling lasting less than 24 hours. The only danger is if there are multiple stings and a large amount of venom is injected. This can cause toxic reactions such as fever, vomiting and kidney malfunction. Casualties …

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13.2 Animal and Human Bites

Bite injuries can be divided into those that affect the skin and soft tissue (i.e. dog, cat and human bites) and those where venom or poison is injected (i.e. spider, snake and marine creatures). Human bites should be reported to the Police services as an assault. All animal bites have the possibility of carrying the …

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5.4 Automated external defibrillator

An Automated external defibrillator (AED) analyses the heart’s electrical rhythm to identify the presence of a rhythm that responds to shock therapy. i.e ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. If a shockable rhythm is identified the AED prompts the delivery of an electric shock to the heart. If an organised rhythm returns and high-quality CPR continues …

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5.3. Child and Infant CPR

Definition of an infant and child: An infant is defined from the time of birth up until 1 year of age. A child is defined from 1 year old until 12 years old. Remember to complete HHHH (check for hazards, call out “hello!” and tap the shoulders (for a child) or feet (for an infant) …

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14.5 Chest Wounds

Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air in the pleural cavity of the chest between the lung and the chest wall. It may occur spontaneously in people with chronic lung conditions. A pneumothorax may occur after physical trauma to the chest, a blast injury or as a complication of medical treatment. The affected side of the …

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14.4 Airway Obstructions

Asthma Asthma is an immunological disease which causes the bronchioles to narrow due to inflammation and spasm of the lining of the airway wall. Signs and symptoms of asthma: Wheezing breaths Tightness in chest Anxiety Rapid breathing (tachypnoea) Rapid heart beat (tachycardia) First aid treatment for asthma: HHHHCPR Assist casualty take own medication and sit …

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14.3 Concussion and Compression

Concussion and compression injury can occur as a result of direct and indirect trauma. Concussion is head injury i.e. bruising and swelling of the brain that temporarily affects brain functioning. It may be a result of a direct blow to the head or forces elsewhere on the body that are transmitted to the head. For example: a blow …

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14.1. Triage

Triage is required where there is an incident involving multiple casualties that require critical attention and immediate transportation to a medical facility. Examples: Multiple vehicle accidents Aviation accidents Floods Terrorist attacks Bomb blasts Domestic and industrial fires Triage is the process of prioritising casualties based on the severity of their condition. The word “triage” comes from the French …

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